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Booksout, 3D printers in for reinvented US libraries
新闻链接:http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22329784.000-books-out-3d-printers-in-for-reinvented-us-libraries.html#.U80AG4uS3IU
本文由材料人网编译团队综合分组刘章洋、陈召、黄栋梁翻译,刘兵杰、孙继飞、李长君校正。

Space to create (Image: Chicago Public Library)

Space to create (Image: Chicago Public Library)


        INTHE small town of Fayetteville in northern New York, you'll find the locallibrary in an old furniture factory dating from the turn of the 20th century.The refurbished building retains hints of its industrial past: wooden floors,exposed beams, walls lined with carefully labelled tools.
    在纽约北部的费耶特维尔小镇上,你会发现建在一所旧家具工厂里的当地图书馆,而这所旧家具厂可以追溯到20世纪初。经过翻新的建筑仍然保留了以前的家具产业留下的痕迹:木地板,裸露在外面的横梁,仔细标记工具作为内衬的墙壁。

        Butinstead of quietly perusing stacks of books, many of the patrons are crowdedaround a suite of 3D printers. One machine is midway through a pink mobilephone case; another is finishing up a toy sword.
    但是,图书馆中的人们不是在安静地细读成堆的书籍,取而代之的是,许多顾客都在围观一套3D打印机。其中一台机器正在生产一个粉红色的手机套;而另一个则正在完成一把玩具剑的生产流程。

        Thisis Fayetteville's maker lab – and it may very well be the future of libraries.
    这就是费耶特维尔的制造实验室——并且它很有可能是当代图书馆的未来。

        In2011, Fayetteville became the first public library in the US to set up a makerlab. Besides 3D printers, the space features a laser cutter, electronics kits,workshop tools, Raspberry Pi computers and an array of sewing machines. Itfunctions somewhere between a classroom and a start-up incubator – a place wherepeople from all over the region can get involved with state-of-the-arttechnology.
    2011年,费耶特维尔图书馆成为美国第一所用于建立先进制造实验室的公共图书馆。除了3D打印机,这个实验室还配备了激光切割机,电子工具包,车间工具,Raspberry Pi型号的电脑和一系列的缝纫机。它在教室和初始孵化工厂之间的某个地方发挥作用,这个初始孵化工厂可以让来自全世界各个地区的人们参与到国家的最先进的工艺技术中来。

       Sincethe lab opened, similar spaces have been popping up across the country,including in cities like Sacramento, Pittsburgh, Denver and Detroit. Accordingto the American Library Association, about 1 in 6 libraries now dedicates someof its space to maker tools and activities. The New York Public Library – oneof the largest in the country – is watching these developments to inform itsupcoming renovation.
    自从实验室开放以来,类似的地区已经风行美国各地,其中包括像萨克拉门托,匹兹堡,丹佛和底特律之类的城市。根据美国国家图书馆协会的数据,有大约1/6的图书馆现在致力于开拓一些空间来给那些制造型工具及举办相应的活动。纽约公共图书馆——美国最大的图书馆之一,正在关注着这种事态的发展,从而为它即将推出的改革提供建议。

       Theimage of a library as a building filled with books, quiet readers and shushinglibrarians is fading fast as we get ever more of our information through theinternet. Websites like Wikipedia and vast online databases have largelyreplaced physical copies of reference books and back issues of journals. Otherbooks can be offered in digital form, or physical copies stored out of sightand called up via an automated retrieval system.
    伴随着人们从互联网上得到前所未有的我们所需信息,传统图书馆那种作为一个里面摆满了书,充满了安静的读者和使之安静下来的馆员的建筑物的形象正在迅速消失。像维基百科和海量的在线数据库这样的的网站已经在很大程度上取代了对参考书籍和过期刊物的机械式摘抄。其他的书籍可以以数字形式提供,手抄副本存储的方式正在逐渐淡出人们的视线,从而书籍可以通过自动检索系统调用。

        It so happened that these changes unfolded inparallel with a profound and lasting economic recession. With jobs hard to comeby, librarians began to notice that their visitors were looking for more fromtheir library than just a peaceful place to read. Increasingly, people werecoming in search of information on how to switch careers or start their ownbusinesses.
    凑巧是这些变化与深刻而持久的经济衰退不期而遇。伴随着寻得工作的越发不易,图书馆理员开始注意到来到图书馆的人们不再仅是寻得一个可以安静阅读的地方,而是想从这儿获得更多的信息:寻求如何转变他们的职业规划亦或开始自己的事业。

       "Since 2008, when the bubble burst and everything started to fallapart, we've never been busier," says Sue Considine, director of the Fayetteville Free Library. "It has snowballed into this reallyexciting rebirth for public libraries in many ways, as places whereentrepreneurship and invention and discovery can happen."
    “自2008年以来,经济泡沫破灭,一切开始分崩离析,我们从来没有忙碌过,”Fayetteville Free 图书馆的主任Sue Considine说道。“在许多方面,公共图书馆的精彩纷呈的“重生”正如滚雪球一般陆续上演着。在这里,创造新事业、发明新事物、以及发现新规律,都有可能成为现实。”

       To make room for labs, some libraries are clearing out their printinventory. In Tennessee, nearly a third of the Chattanooga Public Library'sprint collection – encyclopedias, reference articles, unpopular novels – wassold at a public auction to turn an entire floor into a maker lab. An academiclibrary at the University of Nevada, Reno, put more than half of its inventoryinto storage, freeing up 1700 square metres for maker tools and working space.
    为了给实验室腾出空间,一些图书馆正在清理他们的印刷库存。位于田纳西州的Chattanooga公共图书馆为了把整个楼层变成制造实验室,将近三分之一的印刷型馆藏——百科全书,参考书目,冷门的小说,进行了公开拍卖。而位于内华达州的里诺大学图书馆,把超过其一半的藏书移入仓库,腾出1700平方米的地方用于放置制造工具以及作为办公场所。

        Startinga maker space isn't cheap – a standard 3D printer that uses melted plastic, forexample, can cost several thousand dollars. But the Institute of Museum and LibraryServices,a US government agency, is supporting the growing movement. It has given out$2.6 million in grants so far for maker-space projects.
    启动一个制造实验室并不便宜——例如一台用于熔化塑料的标准3D打印机就要花费几千美元。幸运的是一个名为“博物馆和图书馆服务研究所”的美国政府机构正在为逐渐增多的类似活动提供支持。到目前为止它已经为制造实验室项目提供了260万美元的政府补助。

        Such investment makes sense if libraries areto fulfil their mission in society, which Corinne Hill, director atChattanooga, says extends far beyond books. "We've always deliveredinformation to the public; we have done this for 3000 years. We're just doingit differently," she says. "I think that libraries are starting tosee the light."
    如果图书馆能履行其社会使命,发挥作用,那么这些投资就都是有意义的。Chattanooga图书馆的主任Corinne Hill认为所做的这些要远远超出书籍提供给人们的帮助。“我们一直在为公众传递信息,并且已经做了3000年。现在我们只是在用另一种方式来做这件事而已。”她补充道,“我认为其他图书馆的管理员们也都逐渐看到了这重焕新生的光明。”

       Thoughonly a couple of years old, library maker spaces have already spun out a hostof entrepreneurial successes (See "Stacks to start-ups"). At the Harold WashingtonLibrary in Chicago, patrons have developed prototypes for satellite trackers,dental hygiene instruments and guitar parts. Two graduate students used theFayetteville library to produced a novel model of the brainstem, which theythen licensed to a medical equipment manufacturing firm. A Nevada patron iscurrently negotiating the sale of an original board game with 3D-printedpieces. Others use the space to enhance existing small businesses. For example,a cheesemaker used a Chattanooga 3D-printer to make a logo to stamp onto hiswheels of cheese.
    虽然只有短短几年的时间,但图书馆制造实验室已经出现了一系列成功的创业案例(详见“ Stacks to start-ups “)。例如,在位于芝加哥的Harold Washington图书馆,人们已经开发出卫星跟踪器的原型,口腔乐器以及吉他部分。再如,两个研究生在Fayetteville 图书馆的制造实验室建立了一种新的脑干模型,并且授权给了一家医疗设备制造公司。再看,一位内华达州赞助人目前正在就3D打印的一款新颖的棋盘游戏的出售问题进行谈判。其他人也在使用制造实验室来对现有的小企业进行提升改造。例如,一个奶酪制造商使用了Chattanooga 3D打印机在车轮状的奶酪上铭刻logo。

       Themaker spaces have even attracted the interest of major tech businesses.Chicago's "pop-up" maker lab was intended to last for only six monthslast year. But the site was so successful – with more than 30,000 visitors –that the Google-owned tech firm Motorola Mobility offered to fund the space forat least another year. And Google itself later provided 500 Finch Robots,cute-looking devices that can be used to teach basic programming skills.Inventables, a hardware company based in Chicago, was similarly inspired andhas donated 3D-carving machines around the country.
    制造实验室甚至吸引了各大高科技企业的兴趣。芝加哥的“pop-up”制造实验室去年本来只能维持六个月。但由于该实验室有着超过30,000的参观者,得到了已被谷歌收购的摩托罗拉移动科技公司的关注,因此获得了让其至少还可以运行一年的资金。而谷歌总公司不久后也向其捐赠了500个有着可爱外观又可用于基础编程教学的芬奇(Finch)机器人(以供芝加哥公共图书馆借出)。一家总部设在芝加哥名叫Inventables的硬件公司,受到这件事的启发已经向全国各地捐赠了许多台3D雕刻机。

        Brian Bannon, who is theChicago public libraries commissioner, says that maker space is now part of thecity's goal to become a major hub for advanced manufacturing over the nextcouple of decades. "Exposing people in a more experiential way to thistechnology might help them identify advanced manufacturing as something thatcan be a good fit for them," he says. The Harold Washington Library isrunning a programme that aims to draw more women into the traditionallymale-dominated field. So far, just over half of the students enrolled in itsclasses, which include training in how to use laser cutters and 3D printers,have been female.
    芝加哥公共图书馆委员布莱恩•班农表示,现在制造实验室就是城市在未来的几十年中成为先进制造业中心目标的一部分。他说道“让人们以体验的方式与这种技术接触有助于使人们认为先进制造技术非常适合他们。”哈罗德•华盛顿图书馆正在进行一个计划,目的是吸引更多的女性进入原本由男性主导的领域。到目前为止,有刚刚超过学生总数一半的女性报名参加其举办的激光切割机和3D打印机学习班。

        Afuture in which libraries are noisy, messy innovation workshops is actually areturn to form, says Tod Colegrove, a librarian at the University of Nevada,Reno. The ancient Library of Alexandria was home to the world's first steamengine, an early example of successful tinkering, he says.
    内华达大学雷诺分校的图书管理员托德•科尔格罗夫说:图书馆转变为嘈杂、凌乱的创新工场,其实历史上早就有了成功的事例——世界上第一台蒸汽机的制造就是在古亚历山大图书馆进行的。

       Suchan environment may be just what is needed. Book learning is now easily donedigitally, but creating and controlling the tools and devices that characterisemodern society requires highly specialised skills. The only way to acquire themis through hands-on activity.
    这样的环境可能就是我们需要的。在数字化的今天书本知识很容易获取,但是创造和控制构成现代社会的工具和设备却需要高度专业化的技能,而获得这些技能的唯一方法就是通过实践来学习。

       "It'sputting more emphasis on not being a repository, but a place of activelearning," says Barbara Stripling, president of the American LibraryAssociation. "More and more, it's not enough to just have the facts, tojust gather information. You really need to be able to understand it and applyit in the way that you want."
    “图书馆的重点是构建一个主动学习的地方而不是一个仓库。”美国图书馆协会的会长芭芭拉•斯特里普林说,“越来越多的人只是在了解事实,收集信息,这是远远不够的,你真正需要的是理解它并以你想要的的方式来将它付诸于实际。”
   
    由于翻译人员与校正人员的水平有限,不足之处,请大家多多指教!

汪洋玄远

写了 201 篇文章,拥有财富 1553,被 31 人关注

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