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高效纳米多孔金属材料制备方法

标签: 金属
Researchers develop efficient method to produce nanoporous metals
高效纳米多孔金属材料制备方法
Date::November 25, 2014
Source::DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Summary::Nanoporous metals -- foam-like materials that have some degree of air vacuum in their   
           structure -- have a wide range of applications because of their superior qualities.

    纳米多孔泡沫状金属材料,其结构中有一定的真空度并具有优良的性能,故被广泛应用。
Nanoporous metals -- foam-like materials that have some degree of air vacuum in their structure -- have a wide range of applications because of their superior qualities.

    纳米多孔金属材料由于其较高的表面积所以拥有良好的电子传输特性,这正好改善了其在导电双电容或电池上的电极性能。纳米多孔金属材料为分析物的吸附提供了更多的可用位置,这对传感器来说是一个非常理想的功能。
They posses a high surface area for better electron transfer, which can lead to the improved performance of an electrode in an electric double capacitor or battery. Nanoporous metals offer an increased number of available sites for the adsorption of analytes, a highly desirable feature for sensors.

    劳伦斯-利弗莫尔国家实验室(LLNL)和瑞士联邦技术学院(ETH)的研究人员已经开发了一个具有成本效益的、更加有效的方式来制造纳米多孔金属材料,其覆盖尺寸很多,从纳米级到肉眼可见的宏观尺度。
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) researchers have developed a cost-effective and more efficient way to manufacture nanoporous metals over many scales, from nanoscale to macroscale, which is visible to the naked eye.

    该过程刚开始是利用一个四英寸的硅晶片,然后在其表面溅射一层金属涂层。在这项研究项目中用到了金、银、和铝,但并不局限于此。
The process begins with a four-inch silicon wafer. A coating of metal is added and sputtered across the wafer. Gold, silver and aluminum were used for this research project. However, the manufacturing process is not limited to these metals.

    接下来,在金属基板上添加一种由两种聚合物组成的混合物来制作样品,这个工艺过程被称为嵌段共聚物光刻(BCP)。该样品是由一个单一的纳米尺寸的聚合物掩膜转化而成的。最后,采用各项异性的离子束(IBM)加工技术可以通过掩膜来蚀刻孔阵,以制成纳米多孔金属材料。
Next, a mixture of two polymers is added to the metal substrate to create patterns, a process known as diblock copolymer lithography (BCP). The pattern is transformed in a single polymer mask with nanometer-size features. Last, a technique known as anisotropic ion beam milling (IBM) is used to etch through the mask to make an array of holes, creating the nanoporous metal.

    在这个制造过程中,要不断地检测金属的粗糙度来确保成品具有良好的孔隙率,而这是制造具有独特性质的纳米多孔材料的关键之处。金属材料越粗糙,其表面就越不平坦,孔隙越多。
During the fabrication process, the roughness of the metal is continuously examined to ensure that the finished product has good porosity, which is key to creating the unique properties that make nanoporous materials work. The rougher the metal is, the less evenly porous it becomes.

   “在制造过程中,我们小组成功的在4英寸硅晶片上实现了92%的孔覆盖率及99%的均匀性,这就意味着该金属是光滑的,且孔分布均匀。”来自LLNL的工程师和联合研究小组的Tiziana Bond这样说到。
   "During fabrication, our team achieved 92 percent pore coverage with 99 percent uniformity over a 4-in silicon wafer, which means the metal was smooth and evenly porous," said Tiziana Bond, an LLNL engineer who is a member of the joint research team.

    该小组已经定义了一个度量(基于BCP孔覆盖率和金属表面粗糙度之间的参数化相关性),通过该度量,当我们知道有不均匀孔隙产生时,我们就应该停止这个制造过程,这样就节省了加工时间和成本。
The team has defined a metric -- based on a parametrized correlation between BCP pore coverage and metal surface roughness -- by which the fabrication of nanoporous metals should be stopped when uneven porosity is the known outcome, saving processing time and costs.

“我们最大的突破在于,探究出了一种制备纳米多孔金属的新方法,此方法                成本低廉,还可进行实时的质量监控,且在多尺度方面无需利用剥离技术去除金属”邦德说,“这些金属材料适用于很多领域,如能量采集,传感和电化学等的研究。”
"The real breakthrough is that we created a new technique to manufacture nanoporous metals that is cheap and can be done over many scales avoiding the lift-off technique to remove metals, with real-time quality control," Bond said. "These metals open the application space to areas such as energy harvesting, sensing and electrochemical studies."

剥离技术是在基底表面通过剥离无关原子而使靶材呈现出理想的图案。它最大的问题是,在纳米尺度金属层无法被均匀地(或全部)剥离出来。
The lift-off technique is a method of patterning target materials on the surface of a substrate by using a sacrificial material. One of the biggest problems with this technique is that the metal layer cannot be peeled off uniformly (or at all) at the nanoscale.
最近一期《先进材料界面》的封面故事刊登了该研究小组的成果,题为"多尺度成型工艺: 采用去剥离法制备高保真宏观覆盖的纳米多孔金属阵列"。
The research team's findings were reported in an article titled "Manufacturing over many scales: High fidelity macroscale coverage of nanoporous metal arrays via lift-off-free nanofrabication." It was the cover story in a recent issue of Advanced Materials Interfaces.

纳米多孔金属的应用还包括支持新的超材料(工程材料),即用于辐射增强过滤和处理(包括深紫外线)等方面。上述应用很可能实现,因为纳米多孔材料可促进穿过表面等离子体振子隧道的透射(或反射)光的异常增强,且该特性已被广泛应用在发光装置,等离子体刻蚀,基于折射原理的传感器和完全光学开关等方面。
Other applications of nanoporous metals include supporting the development of new metamaterials (engineered materials) for radiation-enhanced filtering and manipulation, including deep ultraviolet light. These applications are possible because nanoporous materials facilitate anomalous enhancement of transmitted (or reflected) light through the tunneling of surface plasmons, a feature widely usable by light-emitting devices, plasmonic lithography, refractive-index-based sensing and all-optical switching.



                                                     翻译:刘京京
                                                     校对:于根源
                                                     审核:欧  阳
                                                        2014-12-7
































































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happysun 发表于 2014-12-8 20:51:39
这个材料很有前景
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